Thursday, March 11, 2021

Pear varieties for "Monument" trees in the extreme South


Varieties selected by Barb Gilmor and her staff in Corvallis. A very big "Thank-you!" for all of your work.

-Spalding (PI 617548).-Originated in Spalding County, Georgia, by JW. Daniell, R.P. Lane, W.A. Chandler, and Gerard Krewer, University of Georgia, Experiment. Introduced in 1982. Probably Pineapple x unknown. Selected in 1957. Fruit: resembles that of Magness; large; round-pyriform; flesh creamy-white, fine texture, not buttery, juicy with grit cells only around the core; flavor good, subacid, light aroma; skin yellow, lightly russet with brown dots, no blush, smooth. Tree: size similar to that of Magness; flowers self-fertile; productive; resistant to fire blight. -- Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties.

-Morgan (PI 324134).-Originated in Knoxville, Tennessee, by Brooks D. Drain and Lawson M. Safley, Tennessee Agriculture Experiment Station. Introduced in 1957. Bartlett x Late Faulkner. Fruit: medium to large, 2 3 / 4 inches in diam.; round oblong and slightly pyriform; calyx open, large; skin tough, thick, light yellow, russeted, slight blush; dots many, large, russeted; core large, closed; flesh white, tinged with yellow moderately juicy, tender, melting and flavor sweet-subacid sprightly, qualit good; ripens in late August. Tree: large, upright, vigorous; under favorable conditions produces good annual crops; blooms later than selections of similar maturity period; considered resistant to fire blight. Named in honor of Harcourt A. Morgan, President, University of Tennessee, from 1919 to 1933. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties

-Waite (PI 66131). Originated in Arlington, Va., by M.B. Waite, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Introduced in 1938. Parentage unknown; selected about 1920; tested as USDA 66131. Fruit: almost as large as Bartlett, resembling it in shape; flesh smooth, almost free of grit cells, more acid than Bartlett; apparently lacks quality; good for cooking and canning, fairly good for dessert; ripens about Kieffer time. Tree: good fire blight resistance; growth rather weak; not very productive; crosspollination essential. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties.<P><P>PI 66131 - Received from Arlington Experiment Farm, Rosslyn, Virginia. A hybrid seedling pear originated by M.B. Waite, Bureau of Plant Industry, at the Arlington farm. Numbered February, 1926, for convenience in distribution. Kieffer Cross 38-12. (A cross made several years ago between Kieffer and a European variety of unknown parentage.) Tree moderately vigorous, erect to spreading. Fruit pyriform, 3 to 4 inches long by 2 to 2 3/4 inches wide, yellow, fairly smooth, with numerous small gray or yellowish lenticels. Flesh white, tender, not quite so buttery in texture as Bartlett, but with few stone cells. Rather hightly flavored, mildly acid, apparently well suited to cooking and canning purposes as well as for dessert use. Appears to possess good handling and keeping qualities, not breaking down at the core. -- USDA Bureau of Plant Industry, Plant Inventory No. 86, 1928.<P><P>van Der Zwet and Kiel (1979) in their USDA Fire Blight Handbook (Ag. Handbook No. 510) list 'Canner' as a synonym for 'Waite'.

- Hoskins ( PI 541208). - Originated in Knoxville, Tennessee by Brooks D. Drain, Tennessee Agriculture Experiment Station. Introduced in 1954. Seckel x Late Faulkner; crossed in 1938; tested as Tennessee 38S10. Fruit: size medium; roundish obovate, pyriform, sides unequal; skin medium thick and medium tough, dull, light yellow blushed and mottled with russet; dots many, large, russetted and conspicuous; core size medium; flesh white often tinged with pink, fine-grained, melting, juicy; flavor subacid to sour, sprightly, good; ripens 25 September - 7 October in Clarksville, Tennessee. Tree: large; vigorous; spreading; fire blight resistant. Leaf buds small, short, pointed. gray-brown: leaf scars obscure. Leaves: petiole 3/4 to 1 1/2 inche long, thick, color greenish pink, surface glabrous: blade 3 3/8 to 2 7/8 by 2 to 2 1/4 inches wide, folded; mid-rib reflex; sides slightly waved. outline oblong ovate: base broad, apex medium broad, point small and acute; general color dark green, vein color light green, position spreading; serrations dentate; surface shiny, texture coarse, pubescence short, medium fine and wooly. Flower buds small, usually bluntly pointed, spherical and brownish in color, flowers open late, starting to open March 25, 1953, at Knoxville, Tennessee; small, one inch across; color white, appear before leaves; clusters 5 to 7, umbel form; pedicel short, 5/8 inch, medium thick, pubescent; pollen fertile; distribution good. -- Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties.<P><P>There are no varieties of winter pears as far as the writers know, that are adapted to conditions prevailing in the southern part of the United States. Southern markets are supplied with pears shippedfrom other regions. This is an expensive practice which tends to limit consumption. It is anticipated that the Hoskins pear will alter this condition. The Hoskins pear was obtained by crossing Seckel with Late Faulkner in 1918. The latter is avariety found growing on a farm near Knoxville, Tennessee. It appears to be part Chinese Sand Pear, although its exact origin is not known. Early records of progenies of this variety indicated that it was promising as a fire blight resistant parent in pear breeding. The original tree of Hoskins pear is now 16 years old and has been fruiting since 1913. Annual moderate crops have been produced. A few twigs blighted which soon dried up. Unsprayed trees developed considerable leaf spot, but sprayed trees were very healthy. Replicated plots of this variety started to bear at five years at the Highland Rim Experiment Station, Springfield, Tennessee. Circumference measurements indicate that the variety is a good grower. The fruit is medium size, golden russet, and very uniform. We have harvested the crop in late September and the first week in October. The fruit should be ripe by late October. Can be kept until Christmas and later. Rated good for canning. Its melting, subacid-flavored flesh is rated good for dessert. Fruit: Picked September 25 to October 7 at Clarksville and Springfield, Tennessee; medium-2   by 2  - inches uniform in size and shape,roundish obovate, pyriform with side unequal; stem about 5/8 inch long and thick; cavity usually obtuse, shallow and medium in width; calyx open and medium in size; lobes separated at the base, long and medium in width; basin medium in width and depth, abrupt and furrowed; skin medium in thickness and toughness, dull:color light yellow blushed and mottled with russet; dots many, large conspicuous, and russeted; core medium in size, closed, axile with core lines meeting; calyx tube funnel-shape, medium in length and width; carpels obovate; seeds 1/4 inch long, wide, medium in length and plump, flesh white often tinged with pink, particularly near the core, fine grained, tender, melting and juicy; flavor subacid to sour, sprightly, good. -- University of Tennessee Bulletin, 1954-

-Mooers (PI 541314).-Originated in Knoxville, Tennessee, by Brooks D. Drain, Tennessee Agriculture Experiment Station. Introduced in 1954. Duchesse d'Angouleme x Late Faulkner; hybridized in 1934; tested as Tennessee 34S272. Fruit: large; skin golden russet; ripening extends from late September into October; keeps until December under refrigeration; fine for canning. Tree: large; upright; vigorous; resistant to fire blight and leaf spot, pollen sterile. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties<P><P>The Mooers pear has attracted attention as a late fall and winter variety that is resistant to fire blight. It was developed by crossing Duchessee d' Angouleme with Late Faulkner, in 1934. The Mericourt tree as it looked in 1953 is upright in habits of growth, sturdy, and very healthy. Even unsprayed trees have remained healthy. It is likely to be especially valuable in locations where the leaf spots are very serious. Produces good annual crops. The crop is harvested in late September and may be ripened from October into December. Fruit is large in size, golden russet in color, and attractive. Flesh is crisp, subacid, and good in quality. Rated good for canning. Replicated trials were located at the Highland Rim Experiment Station, Springfield, Tennessee; and six neighboring stations. Tree: Large in size and vigorous, upright, becoming a spreading tree With loads of fruit, top moderately dense. Trunk medium stocky and dark gray; branches medium in length and thickness dull gray with medium-sized raised lenticels. Leaf buds small, long and pointed: leaf scars obscure. Leaves: petiole 1 to 1 3/8 inches long, thick, color pink, surface pubescent; blade 2 7/8 to 3 inches by 1 7/8 to 1 15/16 inches wide, slightly folded; mid-rib slightly reflex; sides slightly waved, outline oblong; base broad, apex broad, point small, short and acute; general color dark green, vein color green; serrations dentate, direction forward. size small and regular; position spreading; surface shiny, texture medium, pubescence short, fine and wooly. Flower buds medium in size, spherical, plump and bluntly pointed. Flowers: late, starting to open March 19, (1953) at Knoxville, Tennessee; medium Size-1 1/16 inches across; color white tinged pink, blossoms appear after or at the start of leafing; clusters open, small, 3 to 6 flowers each, umbel shape, pedicel short, medium thick, 3/4 inches long, sparingly pubescent to glabrous; pollen sterile, distribution good. Fruit: Picked in September at Knoxville, Tennessee; large-3 1/4 by 3   inches-uniform in size and shape, roundish obovate, pyriform: stem 7/8 inch long, thick, often fleshy at the base and inserted at an angle: cavity acute, shallow, broad: calyx open, large; lobes separated at base, medium in length, broad: basin deep, wide, abrupt and furrowed: skin thick, medium in toughness, rough and medium glossy; color greenish yelllow mottled with russet: dots many, large russeted and conspicuous: core large, open, abaxile with core lines meeting; calyx tube medium in length and width and funnel-shape; carpels roundish; seeds large, long, wide and plump; flesh yellowish-white often tinged with green, firm, crisp, tender and moderately juicy; flavor subacid; sprightly, mild and good; canning quality good; can be kept until December. - release notice.

- Sure Crop (PI 541354).-Originated in Bentonville, Arkansas., by Ben Davis, Ozark Nursery Company, Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Introduced in 1930. Chance seedling of unknown parentage; selected in 1917; one of Davis' close friends, Dr. Cotton of Bentonville, was riding on the railroad at the turn of the century; he ate a pear, put the seeds of this pear in his pocket, and later planted them; this variety is the result. Fruit: large; resembles Bartlett. Tree: annual bearer; blooms late; more resistant to fire blight than many other varieties. -- Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties.

- Campas (PI 541705; PI 541706). -Originated in St. Petersburg, Florida, on the farm of Martin Campas. Introduced in 1935 by Stanley Johnston, Michigan Agriculture Experiment Station., South Haven, Michigan. Parentage unknown; discovered in 1923 by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, which propagated and distributed trees for trial purposes to many experiment stations; it proved of sufficient value for canning in comparison with Kieffer at the Michigan Station to warrant its introduction and naming. Fruit: size medium; skin yellow, somewhat russeted; flesh with fewer grit cells, whiter, and softer than Kieffer, which it resembles; ripens late. Tree: high degree resistance to fire blight. -- Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties --<P><P>Campas No. 2 - Fruit medium in size, resembling Kieffer in form and general appearance. May be slightly superior to Kieffer in dessert quality but no great difference. Slow to ripen and appears to keep longer than Kieffer. Tree vigorous, upright grower, very productive, inclined to break from weight of crop, not fully evaluated as to blight resistance. -- H. Hartman 1957.

- Ayers (PI 541722). -Originated in Knoxville, Tennessee, by Brooks D. Drain, Tennessee Agriculture Experiment Station. Introduced in 1954. Garber x Anjou; tested as Tennessee 37S21. Fruit: skin golden russet with a rose tint flesh juicy, sweet; good for eating fresh and average for canning; first picking in mid-August. Tree: resistant to fire blight, pollen-sterile. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties

- Orient (PI 541954).-Originated in Chico, California, by Walter Van Fleet, Plant Introduction Garden, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Introduced in 1945 through the Tennessee Agriculture Experiment Station. Pyrus communis x Pyrus sp. from China; direction of cross unknown; P.I. 64224. Fruit: nearly round, averaging 3 inches long and 2 3 / 4 inches in diam.; flesh firm, juicy, slightly sweet, lacking in flavor; good for canning; ripens 15-18 Aug. at Knoxville, Tennessee. Bruises easily when ripe; skin thick and tough, with rough finish; flesh creamy-white, good texture, mild flavor, grit near core, resistant to core breakdown. Tree: produces annual medium-sized crops; resistant to fire blight; mostly of interest in Tennessee and southward. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties

- 'Higdon' and 'Quave' are pears supplied by Mr.Lee Sharp of Ocean Springs, Mississippi. They were obtained from Mrs. Jake Quave (now long deceased, and the tree bulldozed) and Mr. Paul Higdon (still living and with his tree). They were propagated many years ago by a now defunct nursery in the local area. Mr. Sharp likes the size and quality; mine have set pears already this season with a very low chill winter. They appear to be fireblight-resistant. Ethan Natelson, March 14,1999.

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