The number of yards in mid-Michigan with crab apples (

*Malus*hybrids) or flowering pears (

*Pyrus calleryanna*) is about 70%. In a "doomsday" scenario, like when Berlin was blockaded or when Great Britain was isolated during WWII, there would be a time lag of about 32 months from top-working before a significant crop could be harvested. That presumes a generous number of grafts per tree. A more conservative estimate would be 44 months assuming there might be a need to economize on scionwood and the human capital required to do the grafting.

Astounding growth rates occur when a few buds are the recipients of all of the tree's vigor. Rapidly growing apples and pears are susceptible to a devastating disease called fire blight, so named because of the scorched appearance of the twigs. It would be wise to choose cultivars with demonstrated resistance to fire blight. See appendix if interested.

#### Norway Maple

Norway Maple (Acer platanoides) was a darling of urban foresters in the 1950s, '60s and '70s. It is now the bane of those who fight invasive alien species.

Should events transpire that cause us to discard "style" as an excessive burden, then every beam of sunshine currently intercepted by a Norway Maple

__could__be given over to edible Chestnuts, oak that bear sweet acorns, pecan, hickory, walnuts and apple, pear, persimmon and apricot trees.

Empire of Light by René François Ghislain Magritte. The tree is likely an Alder (Alnus cordata or glutinosa) based on the closeness of the canal. Pear trees have a similar, stylish silhouette. |

In today's environment, this suggestion is met with sniffs of disapproval: "Oak are 'dirty' trees." -or- "Fruit attract wasps."

Often, these comments are from people who pitch bags of McDeath and Taco Belch waste out of their cars windows as they drive home. After all, they are "clean" people who do not wish to taint their car interior with the odors of, gag, food. Considering the origin of the bags, I suspect they are safe even if they should choose to drive the bags home and dispose of them using EPA approved methods.

Once a man with an 80 pound Golden Retriever told me he hated the Red Oak in his yard because they were "dirty trees." I suspect that the fecal deposits from his dog were more than wisps of smoke and a trickle of cigarette ash. It is hard for me to visualize 14 ounces of steaming dog poops as being more pleasant to scrap off my shoe than acorns but I guess we all have different values.

Appendix:

A search on the USDA, ARS database for apple varieties that had decent size, sugar content, medium-to-late ripening and

**good fire blight resistance**generated this list. The links work. Feel free to pop them open and read the descriptions:

- PI 588812 MM.111

- PI 588838 Nova Easygro

- PI 588842 Empire

- PI 588943 Liberty

- PI 588955 Sweet Delicious

- PI 588968 Rogers McIntosh

- PI 589028 Oswego

- PI 589039 Paragon

- PI 589069 Green Peak McIntosh 2-2-4-4

- PI 589073 Dabinett

- PI 589110 Dermen Delicious 4X

- PI 589113 Spijon

- PI 589140 Britemac

- PI 589224 Clear Gold

- PI 589231 Hunter Spartan 2-4-4

- PI 589232 Orin

- PI 589237 Bogo Belle de Boskoop

- PI 589255 Redspur Delicious

- PI 589257 Pumpkin Sweet

- PI 613819 Geneva Ontario

- PI 589316 Empress Spur Golden Delicious

- PI 589323 Paradiso

- PI 589453 Ottawa 546

- PI 589548 Mleevskaya Crasavitsa

- PI 589669 Holiday

- PI 589709 Merton 778

- PI 589809 PRI 1660-5

- PI 589813 PRI 1293-100

- PI 589845 Smith Jonathan

- PI 589894 Keepsake

- PI 589967 Lurared

- PI 589968 Pacific Gold

- PI 590022 Oliver or Senator

- PI 590026 Hawkeye

- PI 590074 PRI 1293-102

- PI 590075 PRI 1290-2

- PI 590124 Edelborsdorfer

- PI 590133 Old Pearmain

- PI 590141 Ross Nonpareil

- PI 590153 Kogetsu

- PI 590179 E.8

- PI 590180 Blue Pearmain

- PI 590182 NY 55

- PI 590195 Co-op 8

- PI 590207 Co-op 26

- PI 613827 Amri

- PI 613960 Quetta Ambri (880570)

- PI 613963 Dulcina

- PI 589856 Yellow Delicious

- PI 123726 John Standish

- PI 123964 Paraquet

- PI 123989 Emilia

- PI 131561 Reinette Jaeghers

- PI 132830 Reneta Woskowa

- PI 137094 Notaire

- PI 161763 Nanot

- PI 162741 Reinette Tres Tardive

- PI 172608 BV 82.10

- PI 199009 Merton Worcester

- PI 206029 Keegan's Crab

- PI 223666 St. Anna Rode Boskoop

- PI 231939 Camuzat

- PI 241965 Tydemans Early Worcester

- PI 246461 Red Cox's Pomona

- PI 255599 GDWF1

- PI 256108 Greenmeadows Cox's Orange Pippin No.1163

- PI 264692 Red Belflower

- PI 287529 Toko
- PI 341067 Blahova Oranzova Renetor

- PI 344552 Herma

- PI 437062 Karastojanka

- PI 613939 Novaspy

- PI 613999 KAZ 96 08-17

- PI 614000 KAZ 96 09-02

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