|Pound||Beef, rump steak||$3.31|
|Yard||Shirting, 4-4 bleached||$1.73|
Source of data
In the 1870s silver averaged a dollar an ounce, although it was higher at the start of the decade and lower at the end.
Prices listed are the median price of a sample taken at three different times, 1873, 1878 and 1882. The nominal prices were then scaled to the spot price of silver, 15.74 an ounce at the time I wrote this.
This period was chosen because railroads had the effect of damping out price variation over wider regions and because it was still a period when most work was done by human and animal muscles. It serves as a basis for what prices might look like if the grid went down for an extended period, for instance.
A few things stand out. The price of eggs is very high compared to the price of grain products. That doesn't make sense until you consider that chickens are sensitive to day length and artificial lighting in chicken coops was not a standard practice back in the day. Also, I don't know how widespread the practice of feeding limestone or making calcium rich grit was. Without additional calcium, shells were paper thin and shipping eggs was almost a non-starter.
Another thing that stands out is the ratio between the price of fluid milk and the price of cheese. Cheese is cheap and milk is dear. I attribute that to the lack of refrigeration. Cheese is spoiled milk in a manner of speaking. Supply and demand suggests that cheese was the default end-product of milk regardless of demand.
Butter was expensive relative to today's prices. That might have been demand driven. Today we are swimming in vast oceans of inexpensive vegetable oil and hydrogenated shortening. That drags down the price of butter.
Boots were cheap. Comparable boots (Timberlands or Red Wings) run between $110-to-$250 today. This may be due to the fact that footwear is heavily advertised. My gut feel is that the cost of merchandizing "name brand" footwear is more than the cost of materials and the labor needed to assemble them.
Flour was relatively expensive. I don't have a answer for that unless it was due to the cost of packaging (barrels) and losses due to weevils and such.
Other than that, the prices are not wildly out of whack with what you might see in a grocery store today.